Illinois Historical Markers by County

County Name Location Latitude Longitude Erected Re-Dedicated Erected By Description
Gallatin Boone's Mill The marker is just west of the Town Hall in downtown New Haven, northeast side of Vine Street. 37 54.395 -088 07.461 1971 Gallatin Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society Jonathon Boone, an older brother of the famous Pathfinder Daniel Boone, built a mill on this site about 1800. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1730 and died here about 1808. His son Joseph continued to operate the mill. In 1813 Joseph was named to mark out a road from Burnt Prairie to Shawneetown by way of his mill. On August 24, 1814, he purchsed the millsite from the Federal Land Office at Shawneetown. The mill was used as a landmark by the State Legislature in describing the boundary line seperating White from Gallatin County. Joseph sold the land in 1818. He died in Mississippi in 1827.
Gallatin General Michael K. Lawler The marker is located on the southeast corner of the Shawneetown (New Shawneetown) Mall, between West Lincoln Boulevard and East Lincoln Boulevard, facing Route 13. 37 42.808 -088 11.245 1970 Gallatin Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society Born in Ireland in 1814, Michael K. Lawler came here to Gallatin County in 1819. After serving as a captain in the Mexican War, he lived on his farm near here until the outbreak of the Civil War. In May 1861 he recruited the 18th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment, of which he became a Colonel. Lawler was wounded during the siege of Fort Donelson. In November 1862 he was commissioned Brigadier General, and he fought gallantly in the Campaign of Vicksburg in 1863. He became a Major General in 1865, returning home the next year. He died in 1882.
Gallatin James Harrison Wilson The marker is located on the southwest corner of the Shawneetown (New Shawneetown) Mall, which is between West Lincoln Boulevard and East Lincoln Boulevard, facing south toward Route 13. 37 42.814 -088 11.259 1973 Gallatin County Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society James H. Wilson, American Army Officer, Engineer, and Author, was born in 1837 on his family's farm about a mile south of here. He attended Shawneetown schools, McKendree College, and the United States Military Academy. In the spring of 1864, during the Civil War, he commanded Sheridan's Third Cavalry Division. In the spring of 1865, as Brevet Major General, Chief of the Cavalry, Military Division of Mississippi, Wilson led a month-long mounted campaign through Alabama, capping his exploits by surmounting the fortifications at Selma. Detachments under his command captured Jefferson Davis. Wilson also served in the Spanish-American War and the Boxer Rebellion. He died in 1925.
Gallatin Marshall House The marker is located in the southeast section of Old Shawneetown. It is in front of the Marshall House on Main Street with the levee on one side and the approach to the Ohio River Bridge on the other side. 37 41.646 -088 08.192 1976 Gallatin Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society This was the original site of the home of John Marshall, one of the founders and president of the Bank of Illinois, the first bank chartered by the Illinois Legislature. The charter was issued in 1816. The bank opened at Shawneetown in 1817, suspended operations in the mid-1820's and reopened from 1834 to 1842. Marshall was active in business and politics. In 1818 he was elected a legislature from Gallatin County to the first Illinois General Assembly. He died in 1858.
Gallatin Old Salt Works The marker is located one mile west of Equality on the south side of Route 142. 37 44.604 -088 21.344 1935 State of Illinois One mile south was located one of the oldest salt works west of the Alleghenies. Here Indians and French made salt, while at a later day Americans established a commercial salt industry which finally attained a production of 500 bushels a day.
Gallatin Rawlings Hotel The marker is located on the east side of Main Street in Old Shawneetown, just north and across the street from the large Greek Revival Shawneetown Bank. 37 41.809 -088 08.053 1969 Gallatin Historical Society and The Illinois State Historical Society One of Shawneetown's earliest brick buildings, Rawlings' Hotel, stood on this lot. It was built in 1821-1822 for Moses Rawlings', who owned it until 1841. On May 7, 1825, it was the site of a reception held for the Marquies de Lafayette during his visit to America, 1824-1825. Accompanied by Illinois' Governor Edward Coles and other dignitaries, Lafayette walked between two long lines of people from the river's edge to the hotel. The building was one of eleven destroyed by fire, June 23, 1904.
Gallatin Shawneetown, Illinois (missing) The marker was located in a pull-out area on the north side of Route 13, about 2 miles west of Ohio River. It is currently missing. 37 42.526 -088 10.154 7/28/1964 Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society Ancient mounds rise above the low ground of Gallatin County in several places to testify to a prehistoric life here. The northern section of Shawneetown rests on ancient buriel mounds. For a short time in the mid-eighteenth century the Shawnee Indians had a village here. The first settler arrived about 1800 and others soon followed. The federal Government laid out Shawneetown in 1810, before the surrounding area was surveyed. The town grew as the trading post and the shipping point for salt from the United States Salines near Equality and as a majot point of entry for emigrants from the east. In 1814 the United States Land Office for South-eastern Illinois opened at Shawneetown. Two state memorials - in Shawneetown - the first bank in the territory (1816) and the imposing state bank building (1839), mark the community's early prominence as the financial center of Illinois. According to legend several Chicagoans applied for a loan in 1830 to improve their village but were turned away because Chicago was too far from Shawneetown to ever amount to anything. The Ohio River which contributed to the early importance of the town was always a threat to its existence. In 1937 the angry yellow waters rushed over the levees and rose in the town until they lapped the second floor of the State Bank building. It was then that most of the residents moved northwest to the hills and rebuilt Shawneetown, although some still clung to the original site.
Gallatin Thy Wondrous Story, Illinois The marker was located on the north side of IL 13, about 2 miles west of the Ohio River bridge. It is currently missing. 3/11/1965 Division of Highways and The Illinois State Historical Society The fertile prairies in Illinois attracted the attention of Father Jacques Marquette and French trader Louis Jolliet as they explored the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in 1673. France claimed this region until 1763 when she surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris. During the American Revolution George Rogers Clark and his small army scored a bloodless victory when they captured Kaskaskia for the Commonwealth of Virginia; Illinois then became a county of Virginia. This area was ceded to the United States in 1784, and became, in turn, a part of the Northwest, Indiana, and Illinois Territories. On December 3, 1818, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. Many of the early settlers came from Kentucky, Tennessee, and the southeastern coastal states to live in the southern quarter of Illinois. Kaskaskia on the Mississippi River was the territorial capital as well as the first state capital. As the better land in Southern Illinois became scarce, the line of settlement advanced northward. Vandalia became the second in 1820. This highway passes through an area rich in the early history of Illinois. It crosses the Ohio River where the ferry service began about 1802, skirts old Shawneetown which was a major gateway for immigrants to Illinois and passes near Equality where the United States Salines produced salt for the Midwest in the nineteenth century. In 1937 a devastating flood covered most of Gallatin County and Highway 13 was under about ten feet of water.
Gallatin United States Salines The (Equality) (missing) The marker was located on the east side of Route 1, immediately south of the Saline River Bridge. It is currently missing. 37 42.090 -088 17.154 6/1/1965 The Illinois State Historical Society Two salt springs in Gallatin County produced brine for one of the earliest salt works west of the Alleghenies. One spring is just southwest of Equality and the other is a short distance west of this site. The Indians made salt here long before the first settlers appeared. In 1803 the Indians ceded their 'great salt spring' to the United States by treaty. Congress refused to sell the salt lands in the public domain but it did authorize the Secretary of the Treasury to lease the lands to individuals at a royalty. The leases required the holder to produce a certain quantity of salt each year or pay a penalty. Although the Northwest Ordinance prohibited slavery in this area, special territorial laws and constitutional provisions permitted exceptions at these salines. The lessees brought in Negroes as slaves or indentured servants and used them extensively in manufacturing salt. The census of 1820 for Gallatin County listed 239 slaves and servants. In 1818, as part of the process of making a new state, Congress gave the salines to Illinois but forbade the sale of the land. The state continued to lease the springs and used the revenue to finance part of the land. The commercial production of salt continued here until about 1837 when the low price for salt made the expense of extracting it from the brine prohibitive.

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